Thursday 1 January 2015

Human Bias - Experimental

Scientific method relies on the design of sound experiments and the presentation of results that can be verified and replicated by others.  Experimenter's or expectation bias is the tendency for experimenters to believe, certify and publish data that agree with their expectations for the outcome of an experiment, and to disbelieve, discard or downgrade the corresponding weightings for data that appear to conflict with those expectations.  The observer-expectancy effect occurs when a researcher expects a given result and therefore unconsciously manipulates an experiment or misinterprets data in order to find it.  Selection bias is the distortion of a statistical analysis, resulting from the method of collecting samples.  If data is selected appropriately the results and conclusions will be false or misleading.  Insensitivity to sample size is the tendency to under-expect variation in small samples.  The less-is-better effect is a preference reversal where a dominated smaller set is preferred to a larger set.  

The congruence bias is the tendency to test hypothesis exclusively through direct testing, instead of testing possible alternative hypothesis.  Conjunction fallacy is the tendency to assume that specific conditions are more valid than general ones.  Outcome bias is the tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of based on the quality of the decision at the time it was made.  Pro-innovation bias is the tendency to reflect an excessive optimism towards an invention or innovation, failing to identify weaknesses or address the possibility of failure.

For more see HERE.

No comments:

Post a Comment